Chapter 21.1, 2

i. The light of nature shows that there is a God, who has lordship and sovereignty over all, is good, and does good unto all, and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served, with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the might. But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by Himself, and so limited by His own revealed will, that He may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the holy Scripture.

ii. Religious worship is to be given to God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; and to Him alone; not to angels, saints, or any other creature: and, since the fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation of any other but of Christ alone.

Chapter 21 focuses upon two related items: worship and the Sabbath. It begins with a statement that distinguishes between religious truths that can be discerned from (a) "the light of nature" and (b) God's "revealed will" - in other words, general and special revelation. Interestingly, the section begins with a reaffirmation of general revelation and "the light of nature" (see, Chapter 1, sections 1 and 6). God reveals himself to everyone, everywhere: externally, in creation and common grace; internally, in reason and conscience. "Light of nature" may well refer to the latter more than the former in seventeenth century thought. Every human being knows more of God and of a moral and spiritual obligation to worship than he is prepared to admit (see, Psalm 19:1-4; Romans 1:19-32). Thus, general revelation informs us that we ought to worship and pray - God is "to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served." We are created beings who owe our existence (creation and providence) to the governance of an almighty God.

But general revelation does not tell us how to worship. It is here that the Confession elaborates on a principle already affirmed in the opening chapter - the regulative principle. Few issues were more pertinent in the Puritan era than the issue of conscience - who has the right to impose upon conscience what may or may not be done? Thus the pivotal statement in the previous chapter of the Confession: "God alone is Lord of the conscience, and has left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men, which are, in any thing, contrary to His Word; or beside it, if matters of faith, or worship" (20:2). The interference of the State and/or the hierarchical church, insisting on the use of prescribed liturgies, a Prayer Book, kneeling, genuflecting, etc., violated this principle. Far from being viewed as legalistic and restrictive, the regulative principle - that only a prescribed revelation of God may govern my conscience - was seen as liberating. Scripture, rightly interpreted, provides principles and specifics, that inform us as to how God is to be worshipped. We are not at liberty to worship any way we please - whatever works for me, whatever seems fashionable. This would be to put ourselves under the tyranny of the power-hungry and ambitious, or even Satan himself. It is a measure of the importance given to the regulative principle that the Confession suggests that anything less leaves us at the mercy of the devil!

One particular issue is highlighted: we may not employ any "visible representation" of God in worship. The second commandment, which prohibits idolatry generally, specifically forbids making a visible representation of God. For the Divines, it was the crucifix that was the focus of this prohibition. A visible representation of Christ on the cross can easily become an object of worship in itself. It is but one example, of Calvin's warning, that the mind of man is a perpetual factory of idols (Institutes 1.11.8). 

True worship is always Trinitarian (21:2), and with Roman Catholic abuses in view, the Confession rejects a Mariolatry and the veneration of saints , insisting on the sole Mediatorship of Jesus Christ. Solo Christo and sola Scriptura characterize the Protestant understanding of true religious worship.

Dr. Derek W.H. Thomas is minister of preaching and teaching at First Presbyterian Church, Columbia, South Carolina and Distinguished Visiting Professor of Systematic and Historical Theology at Reformed Theological Seminary.