Calvin's sensitivity to the different circumstances in which people live lead him to flip-flop, or at least to be somewhat ambivalent in his attitude to the magistrate. Citing the case of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 27), Scripture requires obedience to bad kings, and even to pray for the well being of the country of exile (Jer.29). No doubt Calvin has his own city of exile, Geneva, in mind. But should not rulers, who also have responsibilities, be kept on track? Yes, but not by ourselves, but by Almighty God. This leads to discussion of the vexed question of civil disobedience.
No doubt having the Anabaptists in mind, and having already defended the right to litigate, Calvin proceeds to defend the entire judicial process. He discourages using the law for the taking of revenge, but upholds the use of due process, 'through which God may work for our good'. (It is interesting that in his teaching Calvin primarily seems to have mind not Geneva, which by this time in his career he believed was governed along right lines, but countries where the law may remain hostile to evangelical Christianity).
Robert Barnes – Early English Reformer
The early 1500’s was an exciting time for young intellectuals. Scholars such as Desiderius Erasmus and Jacques Lefèvre and religious Reformers such as Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli fueled many stirring discussions in the European universities. The growing discontent with the church and its doctrines seemed to have reached its highest pitch and the increasing consensus provided hope for a change.
Ebenezer Erskine – Preaching God’s Grace in Tumultuous Times
The name Ebenezer Erskine is rarely remembered outside of Scotland. And yet, it was a well-known name in his day. Founder of the Secession Church and a strong voice in the Marrow Controversy, he was involved in many of the tosses and turns of the Scottish Kirk of his time and left a mark in those that followed.
As we pass Labor Day and settle into the fall, I want to label a few of the most influential ideas about work in Western thought and invite you, my reader, to see which thoughts might be informing you and supplanting more biblical ideas about work. Without further ado
Most Greeks thought work was a curse. They especially despised manual labor. Leaders tried to foist it on servants or slaves, so they would have time for philosophy and friendship. To this day, many follow the Greeks in thinking of work as an evil to avoid, if possible.
In 2017-8, the long-simmering, long-suppressed scandal of sexual harassment of women in the workplace broke containment. It began when a handful of strong, brave entertainers credibly accused entertainment's worst offenders of sexual harassment. Men had objectified, harassed, demeaned, and groped them. Bosses had pressed for sexual favors, even forced them, and threatened reprisals if a woman refused to comply or spoke up after the fact. They decided they weren't going to take it anymore. Once a few stood up, dozens, then hundreds of others came forward.
Escapism seems to be everywhere. If you have internet access, try typing “escape” or “escapism” into a search engine. You might not want to visit all the sites that come up in such a search, but what you will see – if you need proof – is that many people seek to escape. Or think about the commercials on TV. Almost every commercial for an airline will talk about escaping. Restaurants promise that we can “escape to the unexpected.” Day spas are big business, and they promise a few hours of escape. And of course there are illicit types of escape. With the rise of the internet, pornogra
Teaching has its own occupational hazards. Teachers complain about lack of respect and pay. They frequently gripe about the students under their care. Teachers grumble about other teachers. In fact, you can read complaints about any and all of these things from teachers in the ancient world, from medieval tutors, or from almost any teacher in almost any school today.
“There is not, in my judgment, a psalm which describes the mind, the manners, the works, the words, the feelings and the fate of the ungodly with so much propriety, fullness and light, as this psalm.” Martin Luther
We live in an age of turmoil. Everywhere we look, we see wickedness and corruption. It seems, at times as though it may overwhelm us. We often feel like a rudderless ship being tossed about on the waves of death and destruction that our world seems to pummel us with every minute of every day.
Where is the Christian to turn for comfort and direction in such a time as this?
The Doctrine of Angels
Jonathan and James tackle a topic somewhat underemphasized in Reformed circles, and—perhaps—overemphasized elsewhere. Should we give more attention to angels? What are the benefits of studying the few verses in Scriptures that address these holy and glorious creatures?
With All Your Heart
Dr. Craig Troxel is professor of Practical Theology at Westminster Seminary California and James’ former pastor. Craig visits the podcast to discuss his recently written book, With All Your Heart: Orienting Your Mind, Desires, and Will toward Christ.
In the previous articles on the Insider Movements (IM), we have surfaced four IM commitments which counter the teaching of Scripture.
1. IM calls believers to stay in. God’s Word calls believers to come out.