Confirmation, a sacrament in Roman Catholic theology, was an offence to Calvin because it sapped the meaning of baptism. In scholastic terms, baptism only washed away original sin and those sins committed before baptism. Confirmation was viewed as a sacrament of continuing grace. Calvin, on the other hands, viewed baptism and a sign and seal of forgiveness and reconciliation for the entirety of one's life - making confirmation unnecessary.
More on sacraments - additional ones invented by men. Using the formula that sacraments are "visible signs of an invisible grace" Calvin notes that there is no limit to the inventions that can pass this test. Reverting again to the argument of recent novelty, Calvin argues that the seven sacraments of medieval Catholicism were unknown in the early church. They are a recent invention (addition) and fail for that reason. Sola Scriptura must be the basis on which sacraments are judged. How many sacraments did Jesus give to the church? Two and only two: baptism and the Lord's Supper.
Editor's Note: Find previous entries in this series at the end of this article.
Satan shows us the disappointments and difficulties that godly men face.
Every culture assumes facts about God and man. They are like glasses through which we view life. Most are unaware that they have them on, or they differ from the assumptions of other times and places. Yet the truth is that our cultural lenses are unique, and they are constantly changing.
In recent decades our assumptions about human nature have gone through a radical transformation. David Brooks describes this change in his book The Road to Character—
The coronavirus is another stark reminder that we are mortal. We are all going to die, one way or another, but in moments like these we are forced to consider the reality of our own death. For the vast majority of us, there is a good chance that this virus will not claim our lives... but you never know.
This is the situation Paul found himself in when he wrote his letter to the Philippians. He was in prison awaiting his trial before Caesar. He would either be acquitted and set free, or condemned and executed. He would either live, or die.
I read John Webster’s The Culture of Theology a few weeks ago. There is much to discuss in this penetrating book of the Thomas Burns Memorial Lectures he gave, but I thought I’d just share a small nugget and some reflection on it:
Johann Heermann and the Comfort of the Cross
Ah, holy Jesus, how hast thou offended,
that we to judge thee have in hate pretended?
By foes derided, by thine own rejected,
(Rev. 1:17, 18)