The Mass. At the heart of Calvin's theological method in assessing the value of the Mass is the cross. The Mass signifies an on-going ritual of sacrifice, undermining the "once-for-all" of Calvary. By its constant repetition, it declares all prior "sacrifices" - including Calvary - insufficient to forgive sins. It denigrates Christ and makes his life and work of less value. By participating in the re-sacrifice ritual, we abandon "free grace" and declare that we are forgiven by something which we do. Again, there rises from the heart of man the reflex of self-justification.
Scottish Highland Presbyterians need to hold their breath for a second while Calvin refers to an annual Lord's Supper ritual as "a veritable invention of the devil" [4.17.46]. Calvin then adds, something which he has been cited for ever since, that the Supper should be "spread at least once a week" - a desire he never experienced; nor could he have. The Supper required a strict discipline in Geneva requiring the involvement of the Consistory - a task impossible to accomplish on a weekly basis.
We don't want to think the worst of people, but neither should we be deceived (Luke 21:8, 1 Cor. 15:33, Gal. 6:7). In our last post, we considered six warning signs that someone might be trying to manipulate you. It is a virtue to suffer for righteousness' sake... but it is not a virtue to suffer needlessly, much less for the sake of a spiritual predator.
But assuming that you've identified spiritual abuse, what can you do about it?
Of the making of commitments there seems to be no end. Having formed any number of New Year’s Resolutions, we find ourselves bombarded by new pressures from within and without—and after nearly a month, perhaps we have already decided to call it quits.
But what if we take a moment to step back from our personal goals, hopes, and dreams for 2021, and consider a biblical resolution fit for the church in our day? That resolution would echo the familiar Edwardsian formula: “Resolved, that we will make disciples.”
Fashion Theology. Robert Covolo. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2020. 216 pp.
Gudina Tumsa – Martyr and Thinker